|Low Carbon Steels||Up to 0.30% Carbon||Good formability, good weld-ability, low cost||0.1%-0.2% carbon: Chains, stampings, rivets, nails, wire, pipe, and where very soft, plastic steel is needed. |
0.2%-0.3% carbon: Machine and structural parts
|Medium Carbon Steels||0.30% to 0.80% Carbon||A good balance of properties, fair formability||0.3%-0.4% carbon: Lead screws, gears, worms, spindles, shafts, and machine parts. |
0.4%-0.5% carbon: Crankshafts, gears, axles, mandrels, tool shanks, and heat-treated machine parts
0.6%-0.8% carbon: "Low carbon tool steel" and is used where shock strength is wanted. Drop hammer dies, set screws, screwdrivers, and arbors.
0.7%-0.8% carbon: Tough and hard steel. Anvil faces, band saws, hammers, wrenches, and cable wire.
|High Carbon Steels||0.80% to ~2.0% Carbon||Low toughness, formability, and weld-ability, high hardness and wear resistance, fair formability||0.8%-0.9% carbon: Punches for metal, rock drills, shear blades, cold chisels, rivet sets, and many hand tools. |
0.9%-1.0% carbon: Used for hardness and high tensile strength, springs, cutting tools
1.0%-1.2% carbon: Drills, taps, milling cutters, knives, cold cutting dies, wood working tools.
1.2%-1.3% carbon: Files, reamers, knives, tools for cutting wood and brass.
1.3%-1.4% carbon: Used where a keen cutting edge is necessary (razors, saws, etc.) and where wear resistance is important.
|Stainless Steel||Stainless steel is a family of corrosion resistant steels. They contain at least 10.5% chromium, with or without other elements. The Chromium in the alloy forms a self-healing protective clear oxide layer. This oxide layer gives stainless steels their corrosion resistance.||Good corrosion resistance, appearance, and mechanical properties|
|Austenitic Steels: Contains chromium and nickel. The typical chromium content is in the range of 16% to 26%; nickel content is commonly less than 35%.||Good mechanical and corrosion resisting properties, high hardness and yield strength as well as excellent ductility and are usually non-magnetic||Kitchen sinks, architectural applications such as roofing, cladding, gutters, doors and windows; Food processing equipment; Heat exchangers; Ovens; Chemical tanks|
|Ferritic Steels: Magnetic with a high chromium and low nickel content usually alloyed with other elements such as aluminum or titanium.||Good ductility, weld-ability, and formability; reasonable thermal conductivity, and corrosion resistance with a good bright surface appearance||Automotive trim, catalytic converters, radiator caps, fuel lines, cooking utensils, architectural and domestic appliance trim applications|
|Martensitic Steels: Typically contains 11.0% to 17.0% chromium, no nickel, and 0.10% to 0.65% carbon levels. The high carbon enables the material to be hardened by heating to a high temperature, followed by rapid cooling (quenching).||Good combination of corrosion resistance and excellent mechanical properties, produced by heat treatment, to develop maximum hardness, strength, and resistance to abrasion and erosion.|
Cutlery, scissors, surgical instruments,
wear plates, garbage disposal shredder lugs, industrial knives, vanes for steam turbines, fasteners, shafts, and springs
|Aluminum / Aluminum alloys||Pure metal / Easily alloyed with small amounts of copper, manganese, silicone, magnesium, and other elements||Low density, good electrical conductivity (approx. 60% of copper), nonmagnetic, noncombustible, ductile, malleable, corrosion resistance; easily formed, machined, or cast||Window frames, aircraft parts, automotive parts, kitchenware|
|Brass||Alloy of copper and zinc, 65% to 35% is the common ratio||Reasonable hardness; casts, forms, and machines well; good electrical conductivity and acoustic properties||Parts for electrical fittings, valves, forgings, ornaments, musical instruments|
|Copper||Pure metal||Excellent ductility, thermal and electrical conductivity||Electrical wiring, tubing, kettles, bowls, pipes, printed circuit boards|
|Lead||Pure metal||Heaviest common metal, ductile, and malleable, good corrosion resistance||Pipes, batteries, roofing, protection against X-Rays|
|Magnesium / Magnesium Alloys||Pure metal / Used as an alloy element for aluminum, lead, zinc, and other nonferrous alloys; alloyed with aluminum to improve the mechanical, fabrication, and welding characteristics||Lightest metallic material (density of about 2/3 of that of aluminum), strong and tough, most machinable metal, good corrosion resistance, easily cast||Automobile, portable electronics, appliances, power tools, sporting goods parts, and aerospace equipment|
|Nickel / Nickel Alloys||Pure metal / Alloys very well with large amounts of other elements, chiefly chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten||Very good corrosion resistance (can be alloyed to extend beyond stainless steels), good high temperature and mechanical performance, fairly good conductor of heat and electricity||The major use of nickel is in the preparation of alloys or plating - frequently used as an undercoat in decorative chromium plating and to improve corrosion resistance; applications include electronic lead wires, battery components, heat exchangers in corrosive environments|
|Titanium / Titanium Alloys||Pure metal / Easily alloys with aluminum, nickel, chromium, and other elements||Low density, low coefficient of thermal expansion, high melting point, excellent corrosion resistance, nontoxic and generally biologically compatible with human tissues and bones, high strength, stiffness, good toughness||Aerospace structures and other high-performance applications, chemical and petrochemical applications, marine environments, and biomaterial applications|
|Zinc / Zinc Alloys||Pure metal/ Metal is employed to form numerous alloys with other metals. Alloys of primarily zinc with small amounts of copper, aluminum, and magnesium are useful in die-casting. The most widely used alloy of zinc is brass||Excellent corrosion resistance, light weight, reasonable conductor of electricity||Used principally for galvanizing iron (more than 50% of metallic zinc goes into galvanizing steel), numerous automotive applications because of its light weight|